The volcanic cone was formed 108 million years ago. Magma penetrated the Devonian sandstone layers and solidified below the earth's surface. This passage or vent of hard basalt protected the surrounding sandstone from erosion, so that the cone shape of the Neuerburger Kopf, which is still clearly visible today, remained. The Neuerburger Kopf and the neighbouring Lüxeberg are the oldest volcanic phenomena in the Eifel, dating back to the Cretaceous period. The Neuerburger Kopf was formerly called Merkuriusberg (Mercurius, Roman god of trade). The former name can be explained by the Roman trade and military roads crossing next to it. The current name refers to a castle. Archbishop Albero (1131-1152) had a "novum castrum" (= new castle) built, it was completed by Archbishop Hillin in 1168, and extended by Archbishop Henry II (1260-1286). The castle was mainly used for collecting customs duties on the neighbouring trade route and belonged to the seven Kurtrian castles, as did Manderscheid, Arras, Saarburg, Grimburg, Welschbillig and Ehrenbreitstein. Under the protection of the castle, the last inhabitants of the village of Hatzdorf, which was hit by the plague and therefore abandoned, settled and founded the village of Neuerburg. In all probability, Neuerburg Castle was destroyed in 1689 by the French marshal François de Créquy, who also had Wittlich destroyed from Mont Royal. Today, there are only a few remains of the walls left.